Las Baulas de Guanacaste National Marine Park, Costa Rica Sven Bratschke and Rotney Piedra Chacón
à see below
Steffen Reichle, Peter R. Hobson & Pierre L. Ibisch
Costa Rica has a long history of protected area management and almost a quarter of the country is designated under protected area status. Combined with the tourist industry, protected areas form a vital part of the nation’s economy. Protected areas management is administered through a sophisticated regional network of 11 national conservation areas under the jurisdiction of SINAC (Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación). Two of the regional areas are the Amistad Caribbean Conservation Area (of which Cahuita National Park is part of), and the Central Pacific Conservation Area (including the Manuel Antonio National Park).
As part of a programme carried out by the International Climate Initiative, whose central objective is to increase the adaptive capacity of the coastal and marine ecosystems in Costa Rica to the adverse impacts of climate change, the two marine National Parks were assisted in designing their management plans. In November 2011, a MARISCO exercise was carried out with park staff from the Manuel Antonio and Cahuita National Parks.
At the beginning of the process, a brief Ecosystem Diagnostics Analysis of both project areas was undertaken to establish at first hand potential threats and contributing factors to both reserves. This exercise was followed by a four-day workshop involving stakeholders made up of park staff from Manuel Antonio and Cahuita National Parks, regional protection agencies as well as national and international consultants. The project focused mainly on providing integral strategies and additional data for enriching the ongoing elaboration of management plans for both protected areas.
 The project was part of the SINAC/BIOMARCC programme. The project BIOMARCC of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, in cooperation with the National System of Conservation Areas (SINAC in Spanish initials) in Costa Rica, is currently carried out under the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Central objective of the project is to increase the adaptive capacity of the coastal and marine ecosystems in Costa Rica to the adverse impacts of climate change. One main aspect in order to achieve the objective is to assist coastal and marine protected areas in the design of management plans, which consider impacts of climate change and integrate adaptation strategies (BIOMARCC-SINAC-GIZ, 2013). See also http://www.biomarcc.org for more information.
Workshops and work flow
The results of the Ecosystem Diagnostics Analysis provided an environmental baseline of understanding that, later, proved to be an important source of information for the discussion with the protected area teams.
Directly after the field visit in November 2011 a two-day workshop was carried out with the participation of protected area staff, regional conservation agencies, as well as national and international consultants. In this first workshop, under the guidance of the consultant group a step-wise approach was used to produce a full-scale vulnerability analysis for both sites.
Part of the on-going activities during the first part of the workshop involved the coaches team collating the material and information produced in the ‘field’ and constructing a graphical representation of the results. Once the conservation objects were identified, each team produced a list of ‘weighted’ threats and contributing factors using a simple scoring system. The results of this analysis were fed back to the participants for review and comments. The second workshop carried out in March of the following year represented the next set of steps in the MARISCO cycle, which was to evaluate the results of the situation analysis against the existing management prescriptions, and then formulate effective and realistic strategies for both parks. What followed was the writing of new prioritised strategies made up of smart objectives designed to target existing and future threats to biodiversity.
The workshop was deliberately structured to run as two separate groups each representing one of the parks. By running parallel sessions with frequent peer review meetings it was possible to share good practice and exchange ideas between the teams.
Both sub-groups began the exercise by examining the ecological integrity of the site in the wider context of land use change and management. There was broad consensus amongst all participants from both parks that current boundaries delineating protected areas were too small to effectively meet the conservation objectives and that they should be extended to include watersheds, river basins and littoral as well as deeper zones out at sea. It was also clear from discussions amongst members of each group that most of the risks and impacts to biodiversity within the reserves came from outside the park boundaries. For example, the sedimentation and contamination that threatens marine life in both parks were the combined effects of degraded river systems and intensive agricultural production in the surrounding areas. In the case of Manuel Antonio National Park, the team members included in their strategy the need to manage the activities of land owners and industry operating in the wider landscape. For these reasons, both protected areas decided to increase the boundaries of their planning area with the specific intention of incorporating the headwaters of rivers as these were identified as the main source of sedimentation in the marine areas.
While both parks already had a strategy for regulating visitor numbers and other human activities it was clear from evidence of the Manuel Antonio National Park that effective policing of tourism remained a challenge. An adjustment to existing strategies for managing tourism was seen necessary in both parks.
Both groups adopted an ecosystem approach when it came to selecting biodiversity objects, although certain priority species were incorporated into the list. Direct reference was made to one or two species such as turtles. Staff at Manuel Antonio National Park raised concerns about the serious lack of information and knowledge of the marine biodiversity, which may have accounted for a poor representation of this biodiversity group in the initial list of conservation objects.
The final results of the situation analyses, in both cases, revealed several gaps in existing management strategies. For instance, climate change was identified as a major threat that would have a growing impact on almost all conservation targets in years to come and yet there was little reference to climate change in the original management documents. The Cahuita team identified the need for urgent fiscal aid to help resolve the complex problem of human disturbance and climate change impacts on beaches that were eroding and degrading existing turtle nesting grounds. The Manuel Antonio team proposed a climate change adaptation strategy that would have relevance to all conservation activities including the current tourist plan.
In rating existing and new strategies almost all proposals were awarded high values. The Cahuita team chose to abandon the existing strategy for dealing with invasive species as this problem was considered to be a lower priority to other concerns and because resources to tackle the issue were limited. All other existing strategies were considered to be either viable or in need of minor alterations to improve their success rate.
Outcomes and Conclusions
The in-depth analysis was a novelty for most of the participants, even for those staff with previous experience in planning workshops. Some participants felt that the method was too complicated and time consuming although both teams agreed that the systematic approach provided an effective and realistic analysis of the situation. In particular, time commitment was recognised as a real issue and constraint by the teams of scientific and technical consultants employed to provide the necessary expertise and to produce the management plans. Often, they would “dive out” of the process to attend to other duties and work, thus disrupting their own understanding of the process. Furthermore, the strategies that emerged from carrying out this process were regarded as a true reflection of the problems faced by both parks.
It is worthwhile stressing that the findings emerging from the MARISCO workshop provided the science consultants with important information needed to produce the new management plans for both areas. The conceptualisation and situation analysis highlighted previously underestimated problems connected to climate change and also encouraged participants to analyse both protected areas within a much larger landscape setting.
Both areas have similar problems to do with the funding and staffing of the parks. In some cases, a pragmatic approach to resolving resource limitations is being adopted by collaborating with external partners such as universities or individual researchers. A similar approach will be needed for regional strategies that focus on land-use planning and the integral management of watersheds. The regional conservation areas in Costa Rica provide a useful starting-point to begin a process of large spatial planning.
The participants understood very well the problems of climate change and the synergies with more local human-induced problems. The methodology helped the participants to understand more clearly that most of the solutions to the threats and stresses identified in the park had to involve stakeholders and the wider community living outside the park boundaries.
The advantages of running a large workshop made up of staff from two separate national parks were clear: It provided opportunities for peer review to take place; the sharing of experiences and knowledge; as well as the demonstration of good practice. Collective decisions on common issues and problems could also be made.
In a final evaluation of the effectiveness of the MARISCO workshop participants from both protected area working groups shared the opinion of one member who claimed: “The methodology was clear and is an excellent way of assessing threats, stresses and strategies. It is possible to reach clear conclusions on how to solve existing problems, the results of these workshops need to be included in the new management plan for our area”. An opinion shared by most of the park staff was a common sense of impotence concerning problems arising from outside the park. In particular where large corporation farming was involved. These landscape – related problems relate to other views voiced about the need for assistance at higher levels to address any one of the problems relating to regional scale threats. In the written feedback comment of one participant, it was stated: “There is the need for a workshop that is directed at the level of conservation areas, as many of our strategies need to be focused at regional level”.
Amesbury, S. S., 1982. Effects of turbidity on shallow-water reef fish assemblages in Truk, Eastern Caroline Islands. Manila. University of the Philippines.
Andam, K.S., Ferraro, P.J., Sims, K.R.E., Healy, A. and Holland, M.B., 2010. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, [online] Available at: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/22/9996.full.pdf+html [Accessed 19 September 2014].
Anthony KR, Kline DI, Diaz-Pulido G, Dove S, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2008)Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 17442–17446
Bolaños, N., Bourg, A., Gómez, J. and Alvarado, J.J., 2005. Diversidad y abundancia de equinodermos en la laguna arrecifal del Parque Nacional Cahuita, Caribe de Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. Int. J. Trop. Biol.,53 (3), pp. 285-290.
CIA The World Factbook, 2014. Central America and Caribbean: Costa Rica. [pdf] Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print/country/countrypdf_cs.pdf [Accessed 19 September 2014].
Fonseca, A.C., Nielsen, V. and Cortés, J., 2007. Monitoreo de pastos marinos en Perezoso, Cahuita, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP). Rev. Biol. Trop. Int. J. Trop. Biol. 55 (1), pp. 55-66.
Melton, B.P.E., 2009. In-stream gravel mining impacts and environmental degradation feedback associated with gravel mining on the Rio Tigre of the OSA peninsula, Costa Rica, and the proposed ADI Jimenez Gravel Mining Concession. Austin: Melton Engineering Services.
OWWRI, Oregon Water Resources Research Institute, 1995. Gravel disturbance impacts on salmon habitat and stream health. Vol. 1: Summary Report.
Rundquist, L.A., 1980. Effects of gravel removal on river hydrology and hydraulics. In: Woodward-Clyde Consultants, ed. 1980. Gravel removal studies in arctic and subarctic floodplain in Alaska. Washington, D.C.: Fish and Wildlife Services, U.S Department of the Interior. pp. 67-140.
Salazar, J.A., Varela, G., Jiménez, G., Rodríguez, M.A., Gutiérrez, R., Cháves, R., Artavia, G., Heiner Acevedo M. and Luis Paniagua Ch., 2005. Plan de Manejo para el Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio. Santo Domingo de Heredia: ACOPAC-INBio.
Vásquez, J., Gómez,F. and Meneses, N., 2006. Linking Ridges to Reef: Promoting better management practices among oil palm producers in the Sula valley region of Northern Honduras. WWF.
Weiss, M.P. and Goddard, D.A., 1977. Man’s impact on coastal reefs: an example from Venezuela. In: Forst, S.H., Weiss, M.P. and Saunders, J.B., eds. Reefs and related carbonates: Ecology and Sedimentation. Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. pp. 111-124.
Honey et al. 2010,
Impact of Tourism Related Development on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica Summary Report By: Martha Honey Erick Vargas William H. Durham Center for Responsible Travel A Nonprofit Research Organization Stanford University and Washington, DC www.responsibletravel.org April 2010
Sven Bratschke & Rotney Piedra Chacón
The MARISCO methodology was applied as a central approach in the context of of a Master thesis whilst studying for a qualification in Global Change Management (M.Sc.) at the Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Germany. The hypothesis of the Master thesis was that MARISCO is a valuable method for designing and integrating ecosystem-based adaptation strategies into nature conservation plans. Moreover, it was assumed that institutional aspects represent the key constraints for the effective implementation of Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) strategies in the case study area. The research was carried out in 2013 at the Las Baulas de Guanacaste National Marine Park (Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas de Guanacaste; hereafter PNMLB), Costa Rica in partnership with BIOMARCC (Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, Capacity Building and Climate Change Adaptation in Costa Rica) and the consulting firm Sostenible por Naturaleza (SpN).
The MARISCO methodology was integrated by the project BIOMARCC as a central approach for the design of management plans (see also chapter B-V).
Workshops and workflow
Prior to the MARISCO workshops, a detailed literature review on the biodiversity objects of PNMLB as well as on climate change scenarios and the potential impacts on the defined objects was conducted. Due to resource constraints, not all MARISCO workshops included external stakeholders. Consequently, the multi-stakeholder and participatory workshops were supported by additional technical workshops, in order to finalise the vulnerability assessment as well as the identification and evaluation of strategies.
The multi-stakeholder and participatory workshops were delivered on 24 July 2013, and later on the 16-17 August 2013 in the local administration office of PNMLB. Between 28 and 37 representatives from different governmental, public and private institutions (SINAC, BIOMARCC, Coast guards, Communitarian Development Associations, NGOs, Hotels, Community-based association of aqueducts and sewerage, municipalities) as well as individual community members and property owners took part in both workshops. Participants began the process by defining the scope, vision and the conservation objects for PNMLB. In a next step a systemic vulnerability and risk analysis was carried out by identifying stresses, threats and contributing factors to the different conservation objects. The tasks were performed in small groups due to the high number of participants present. Each group presented their results to all the participants and opened up the floor for discussion. Results were then visualised through the use of moderation cards and the creation of a conceptual model. In the final summation the results from both workshops were discussed and evaluated within the technical workshops.
 The project BIOMARCC of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, in cooperation with the National System of Conservation Areas (SINAC in Spanish initials) in Costa Rica, is currently carried out under the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Central objective of the project is to increase the adaptive capacity of the coastal and marine ecosystems in Costa Rica to the adverse impacts of climate change. One main aspect in order to achieve the objective is to assist coastal and marine protected areas in the design of management plans which consider impacts of climate change and integrate adaptation strategies (BIOMARCC-SINAC-GIZ, 2013). See also http://www.biomarcc.org for more information.
In August 2013, five technical workshops were organized for the completion of the final stages of MARISCO and also to confirm the results from the multi-stakeholder meetings. The number of participants varied from 7 to 11 and included representatives from the administration for PNMLB, the regional office of SINAC, BIOMARCC and SpN. In a first step, the conceptual model was revised, complemented and finalised based on the input from the multi-stakeholder workshops. Most of the steps and discussions were realised in plenary sessions. The assessment of elements within the conceptual model was however divided into two groups due to time constraints.
The completed conceptual model and the strategy matrix were shared between all the participants for discussion A SWOT-Analysis based on interviews with local employees as well as a detailed literature review on climate change conditions scenarios and impacts in the region were used as complementary methods.
Seven biodiversity objects from both marine and terrestrial ecosystems were identified in the exercise. The initial scoping exercise confirmed in the minds of the participants that almost all the factors impacting negatively on the biodiversity within the national park were from outside the protected area. The solution was to extend the boundaries of analysis to include a much larger area of watershed However, park employees also acknowledged there were resource-related issues arising from within the management of the park that were contributing to critical threats to biodiversity. Of all the critical threats identified in the analysis climate change related problems were considered to be some of the most important. Of particular note was the reference made to the threat to marine turtles caused by the indirect effects of climate change on sea level rise and loss to coastal nesting sites Wider concerns to biodiversity loss from climate change impacts were not raised during the workshop Evidence for the impacts of climate change on local biodiversity was supplemented by the desktop study carried out in the lead-up to the workshops, which was then incorporated into the situation analysis. Unregulated tourism and real estate development, together with a range of other human-induced problems such as pollution, over-fishing uncontrolled water abstraction were included as critical threat factors. Results for the vulnerability assessment indicated that the knowledge about the marine ecosystem was poor and that existing conservation efforts focused on the terrestrial landscape. Most participants identified the lack of human and financial resources as principal constraints to the implementation of effective conservation measures. The SWOT-Analysis also acknowledged there were internal and external institutional challenges relating to collaboration, cooperation and communication, which further hindered effective management for conservation.
The lack of financial and human resources identified in the analysis prompted the decision to reduce the number of proposed strategies from the former management plan and focus on the implementation of the most relevant strategic actions. Some of the existing strategies were supplemented with new devised objectives including measures taken to enhance adaptation to climate change as well as an Integrated Water Resource Management plan.
Outcomes and conclusion
The feedback from participants about the value and usefulness of MARISCO indicated overall satisfaction with the process in meeting objectives of producing a new management plan for PNMLB. Specific positive aspects of the method mentioned were the step-wise procedure and visual format for the conceptual model. Participants also acknowledged the value of of full participation of stakeholders, the knowledge sharing within the workshops and the strong focus on all relevant ecosystems. The environment generated by working with MARISCO enabled participants to discuss their different point of views and also provided an appropriate platform for conflict resolution.
Some participants in the multi-stakeholder workshops had difficulties perceiving the site and potential future threats, and preferred to focus on current highly critical threats. This suggests there continues to be difficulties amongst practitioners in working with scenario-based deductive analysis that purposefully integrate uncertainties into nature conservation practices. This was particularly true for the technical workshop, which was attended by few participants, all suffering from high workloads. With this in mind, the recommendation would be to reduce, simplify and adapt some of the steps to help resolve problems relating to shortages of time and money.
Logistical problems to do with large and diverse group sizes and the experience of facilitators to manage the method under such conditions affected the quality of the outcomes. To ensure consistency in quality of delivery and outcomes would require regular training and up-dating of skills amongst trainers working in the field under difficult conditions and across a diversity of cultures. Nonetheless, all proposed strategies by participants mainly target the elimination or mitigation of the most critical underlying drivers and contributing factors of human activities which negatively impact the ecosystems and their respective services. Thus, all strategies contribute towards ecosystem-based adaptation by reducing the vulnerability and increasing the adaptive capacity of ecosystems with regard to threats of climate change and human activities.
However, in order to enable an effective management for PNMLB and realise the proposed ambitious EbA measures, it will be of major importance to overcome current challenges. This especially refers to the lack of resources and the general weak collaboration with external stakeholders. The local nature conservation authority alone will not be able to eliminate all negative aspects affecting the ecosystems. Thus, it will be of central importance to harmonise the current development agenda of the region with the necessities of the natural environment. A holistic approach, which focuses especially on the interconnection of the terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems and which combines regional development planning with biodiversity conservation by fostering a more collaborative management approach is required, in order to effectively protect the ecosystems of PNMLB. MARISCO has revealed the need for a stronger focus on analyzing and managing ecosystems as integrated parts of a larger whole. It has also encouraged stakeholders to adopt a more future-oriented vision that incorporates risks, a stronger integration of and cooperation with external stakeholders, and the consideration of climate change aspects into long-term planning. It is assumed that these aspects require a paradigm shift in current nature conservation practices and development planning on the local and national level.
In conclusion, it can be shown that MARISCO represents a valuable approach in the design and integration of ecosystem-based adaptation strategies in the management planning for protected areas.. The SWOT-Analysis and the climate change vulnerability assessment provided complementary information to the outcomes of the MARISCO workshop. The overall output of the exercise suggests both approaches work well when applied together in cases where institutional and climate change threats and stresses are not fully represented in the results of the workshops and a more in-depth analyses of these aspects are required. Based on the outcomes of the workshop the recommendation is to highlight the importance of climate change aspects throughout the facilitation of the MARISCO process. All generated results at PNMLB should be constantly reviewed by workshop participants and external experts on an annual basis, in order to validate and update the generated results. Moreover, the application of additional MARISCO steps such as the identification of key ecological attributes, the spatial analysis of threats and strategies as well as the definition of result webs will be beneficial, in order to revise and complement the situation analysis and strategies for PNMLB.
Astorga Gättgens, A., A. Mende, M. Rodríguez and M. Piedra González, 2008. Evaluación de la condición ambiental actual de la comunidad de Tamarindo y áreas aledañas, Santa Cruz, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Aplicación del metódo del indice de fragilidad ambiental y del análisis de alcance ambiental con enfasis en la evaluación de effectos acumulativos. San José: SETENA.
BIOMARCC-SINAC-GIZ, 2013. Análisis de vulnerabilidad de las zonas oceánicas y marino-costeras de Costa Rica frente al cambio climático. San José: BIOMARCC-SINAC-GIZ.
Camps, A., A. Montserrat, C. Porras and A. Rovira, 2008. Transformaciones físicas y socioeconómicas a causa de la implantación turística en la localidad de Tamarindo, Costa Rica. [pdf] Available at: <http://dugi-doc.udg.edu/bitstream/handle/10256/1073/1%20MEMORIA.pdf?sequence=1> [Accessed 19.10.2013].
Decreto Ejecutivo 20518, 1991. Decreto ejecutivo de Crea Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas Guanacaste. Diario Oficial La Gaceta 09 July 1991. N°129.
Decreto Ejecutivo 17566, 1987. Decreto ejecutivo de Crea Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Tamarindo. Diario Oficial La Gaceta 23 June 1987. N°118.
GEOCAD, 2009. Estudio integral sobre el impacto de las construcciones y el desarrollo turístico y urbanístico en la zona de amortiguamiento del Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas Tamarindo, Cabo Velas, Santa Cruz, Guanacaste. [unpublished preliminary report] San José: SETENA.
IMN and CRHH. Instituto Meteorológico Nacional and Comité Regional de Recursos Hidráulicos, 2008. El clima, su variabilidad y cambio climático en Costa Rica. [pdf] San José: Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. Available at: <http://cglobal.imn.ac.cr/sites/default/files/documentos/el_clima_variabilidad_y_cambio_climatico_en_cr_version_final.pdf> [Accessed 22 October 2013].
IMN. Instituto Meteorológico Nacional, 2005a. Temperatura media anual en Costa Rica, 1:1500000. Atlas Climatológico de Costa Rica. [online] Available through: <http://www.imn.ac.cr/mapa_clima/interactivo/index.html> [Accesed 22 October 2013].
IMN. Instituto Meteorológico Nacional, 2005b. Evaporación de referencia media anual en Costa Rica en mm/año, 1:1500000. Atlas Climatológico de Costa Rica. [onlinr] Available through: <http://www.imn.ac.cr/mapa_clima/interactivo/index.html> [Accesed 22 October 2013].
INEC. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos, 2011. Resultados generales del censo 2011. [online] Available at:< http://www.inec.go.cr/Web/Home/GeneradorPagina.aspx> [Accessed 01 November 2013].
IUCN. International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2009. Species and climate change. More than just the polar bear. [pdf] Gland, IUCN. Available at: <https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/species_and_climate_change_1.pdf> [Accesed 08 October 2013].
Morera, S. and G. Matamoros, 2003. Evaluación del potencial y demanda hídrica subterránea en el acuífero costero Huacas-Tamarindo, Santa Cruz, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. San José: SENARA.
Piedra, R., 2011. Evaluación del éxito de incubación de los huevos de tortuga baula (Dermochelys coriacea) en dos áreas de anidación del Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas de Guanacaste y su aporte a la conservación de la especie en el pacífico oriental tropical. MSc. Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica.
Ramsar and Wetlands International, 2013. The Ramsar Sites Database. Search for sites. [online] Available at: <http://www.ramsar.wetlands.org/Database/SearchforRamsarsites/tabid/765/Default.aspx> [Accessed 19 October 2013].
Saba, V.S., C.A. Stock, J.R. Spotila, F.V. Paladino and P. Santidrián Tomillo, 2012. Projected response of an endangered marine turtle population to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 2(11), pp.814-820.
Santidrián Tomillo, P., V.S. Saba, G.S. Blanco, C.A. Stock, F.V. Paladino and J.R. Spotila, 2012. Climate driven egg and hatchling mortality threatens survival of eastern pacific leatherback turtles. PLoS ONE, 7(5) :e37602. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037602.
Santidrián Tomillo, P., V.S. Saba, R. Piedra, F.V. Paladino and J.R. Spotila, 2008. Effects of illegal harvest of eggs on the population decline of leatherback turtles in Las Baulas Marine National Park, Costa Rica. Conservation Biology, 22(5), pp.1216-1224.
SINAC. Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación del Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía, 2014. Diagnóstico para el Plan General de Manejo del Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas. Eds H. Acevedo and E. Vargas. Santa Cruz, Costa Rica.
SINAC. Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación del Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía, 2013. Área de Conservación Tempisque. [online] Available at:< http://www.sinac.go.cr/AC/ACT/Paginas/default.aspx> [Accessed 21 October 2013].
Spotila, J.R., R.D. Reina, A.C. Steyermark, P.T. Plotkin and F.V. Paladino, 2000. Pacific leatherback turtles face extinction. Fisheries can help avert the alarming decline in population of these ancient reptiles. Nature, 405(6786), pp.529-530.
Tiffer-Sotomayor, R., R. Piedra, G.N. Rodríguez, A. Rosales, C. Diaz, G. Briceño, A. Fonseca, B. Cortés and C. Chang, 2004. [unpublished] Plan de acción del plan de manejo del Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas de Guanacaste 2005-2010. Área de Conservación Tempisque. San José: Centro Científico Tropical.
Tiffer-Sotomayor, R., A. Mata, M. Losilla, S. Cervantes, M.V. Cajiao, M. Adamson, R. Araúz and M. Marín, 2003. [unpublished] Diagnóstico Ambiental del Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas de Guanacaste. Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas de Guanacaste – ACT. San José: Centro Científico Tropical.